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homeless veterans articles

The latest factual information about homeless veterans – how many there are, where they are, and who they are. All information in this section is taken from official studies and reports, and references to the information should include attribution to those sources. Media Information. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults. Homeless veterans were generally older, better educated, and more likely to be male, married/have been married, and to have health insurance coverage than other homeless w-cohjbook.ga by: Jul 08,  · Barry connected with the Homeless Veterans Project (HVP) of the Los Angeles-based Inner City Law Center, a medical-legal partnership that provides wrap-around health care, case management and Author: Martha Bergmark, Ellen Lawton.

Article: Why Are There Homeless Veterans in America? | OpEdNews

Homelessness among US veterans has been a focus of research for over 3 decades. Thirty-one studies published from to were divided into 3 categories: more rigorous homeless veterans articles, less rigorous studies, and studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans. The strongest and most consistent risk factors were substance use disorders and mental illness, followed by low income and other income-related factors.

There was some evidence that social isolation, homeless veterans articles, adverse childhood experiences, homeless veterans articles, and past incarceration were also important risk factors. Veterans, especially those who served since the advent of the all-volunteer force, were at greater risk for homelessness than other adults.

More studies simultaneously addressing premilitary, military, and postmilitary risk factors for veteran homelessness are needed, homeless veterans articles. This review identifies substance use disorders, homeless veterans articles, mental illness, and low income as targets for policies and programs in efforts to end homelessness among veterans, homeless veterans articles. Homelessness among veterans has been of major public concern for over 3 decades. Homelessness among substantial numbers of veterans was first documented after the Civil War 1but it was not until the early s, a period characterized by high inflation and 2 economic recessions, that veteran homelessness began to be recognized as an important public health problem 2 — 4.

Most recent estimates report that veterans are slightly overrepresented in the US homeless population with veterans constituting Among the general population, homelessness has been a social, homeless veterans articles, and public health concern in the United States and internationally since the early s 8 — Some consider homelessness a violation of a basic human right—the right to have access to safe and secure housing 11 Homelessness is homeless veterans articles a concern because it is associated with a host of other negative outcomes, including a wide range of serious medical problems 1314mental health and substance abuse problems 1015premature mortality 1617frequent hospitalizations, greater homeless veterans articles average costs per hospital stay 1819and incarceration 20 Veterans constitute a unique segment of the US population because of their service to the nation and, as reflected in their increased access in the years since World War II 22to special benefits such as VA health care, homeless veterans articles, disability and education benefits, and home-loan guarantees.

Veterans may also be more vulnerable to certain health and psychosocial problems than other adults because of their higher exposure to combat-related trauma and geographic dislocation for military deployment The presence of veterans within the general US homeless population is regarded as a point of public shame by many, and public concern for their health and well-being is strong 24 InSecretary Eric Shinseki of the Department of Veterans Affairs VA pledged to end homelessness among veterans in the next 5 years, and since then millions of dollars have been used to fund the creation and expansion of VA services for homeless homeless veterans articles A growing component of those efforts is a focus on the prevention of homelessness, which involves addressing key risk factors before they result in an episode of homelessness.

Veterans have been overrepresented in the homeless population since at least the late s. Although this disparity has attenuated over time 5it remains puzzling because homeless veterans are consistently found to be older, better educated, homeless veterans articles, more likely to have married, and more likely to have health coverage than other homeless adults By virtue of their military service, all homeless veterans also have had some employment and a work history.

These advantages should put veterans at lower risk for homelessness than other homeless adults, although they appear to be at higher risk among some veteran cohorts, especially those who were recruited after the advent of the all-volunteer force in 22 No comprehensive models of veteran homelessness have been formulated, but it has been recognized that premilitary, military, and postmilitary factors need to be considered in identifying risk factors for veteran homelessness 28 — Several reviews of studies on risk factors for homelessness in the general population have been conducted 31 — 33and a broad literature review on homelessness among veterans was recently conducted by the VA's Evidence-Based Synthesis Program However, to our knowledge, homeless veterans articles, there has been no systematic review of risk factors for homelessness specifically among veterans in the published literature.

Such a review is important as efforts to address veteran homelessness continue, government funds are directed at prevention efforts, more veterans return from recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, and the scientific community seeks to understand the body of knowledge amassed from research on the causes of homelessness among veterans.

In this systematic homeless veterans articles, we provide a comprehensive examination of the published literature on risk factors of homelessness among US veterans.

First, we compiled and categorized existing studies into 3 categories on the basis of the nature and rigor of their research designs: 1 large cohort, case-control, or other more rigorous studies based on recognized designs; 2 less rigorous, cross-sectional, descriptive, homeless veterans articles, specific focus, or other uncontrolled studies; and 3 studies comparing homeless veterans with homeless nonveterans.

Second, we summarized the findings of studies in each category and provide a synthesis of distinctively consistent findings across studies.

Third, we describe current gaps in knowledge and recommend future areas for research. Fourth, we conclude with a discussion of the implications of these findings for policy and practice, homeless veterans articles. Different combinations and iterations of the following key words and medical subject headings were used to search titles and abstracts in each database: homelessness, homeless, veterans, military, risk, risk factors, characteristics, and causes.

Boolean operators e. Only studies that met homeless veterans articles following criteria were included in the review: 1 sampled US veterans; 2 assessed homelessness in the United States; 3 included homelessness as an outcome or dependent variable; and 4 examined variables in relation to homelessness as a main study aim with the intent to identify risk factors orcharacteristics associated with homelessness.

A broad definition of homelessness was used to be inclusive of studies, homeless veterans articles, which included the US Housing and Urban Development's HUD's definition 35use of any specialized VA homeless services, or a documented V Veteran status was defined as having ever served in the US military regardless of discharge status. Studies were excluded if they reported only the effects of a specific intervention e.

Case reports, published commentaries, and letters to the editor that did not report any quantitative homeless veterans articles were also excluded. References from all relevant literature were hand searched and used to identify additional relevant studies.

Several experts in the field were contacted to inquire about additional studies or reports homeless veterans articles may not have been found in the literature search, homeless veterans articles. As Figure 1 shows, our search initially yielded a total of individual records, which were screened generally for topic relevance and reporting of quantitative data, resulting in the exclusion of 30 of those records.

All 32 studies included were peer-reviewed journal articles, except for 4 book chapters and 2 published governmental reports. One report 36 and one study 37 used the same data and reported similar results so they were considered one study, resulting in a total of 31 separate homeless veterans articles included in this review. Different phases of the search for risk factors for homelessness among US veterans in studies published from to We did not conduct a meta-analysis because a varying array of measures, variables, research designs, and statistical tests were used in these studies that precluded an accurate, balanced, quantitative synthesis of this literature.

However, we do caution that homeless veterans articles statistics must be understood in the context of each individual study and may not be directly comparable as different research designs, covariates, and measures were used in each study. For our review, we categorized studies on the basis of the rigor of their research design and provided a narrative synthesis of their findings.

We divided the 31 included studies into 3 categories: more rigorously designed studies, less rigorously designed studies, and comparative studies of homeless veterans and homeless nonveterans. One book chapter 39 contained 2 separate analyses so it was divided into 2 categories.

More rigorous studies consisted of studies that used a cohort, case-control, or clearly formulated research design that provided support for causal factors for homelessness e, homeless veterans articles. These studies were judged to have lower risk for bias because methodologies were clearly described, more representative samples were used, and confounding variables were taken into account. Less rigorously designed studies consisted of studies that were cross-sectional i. Comparative studies consisted entirely of studies that compared veterans with nonveterans on risk factors and characteristics associated with homelessness.

These studies mostly used a cross-sectional research design, with a few exceptions e. A total of 7 studies were identified that were based on data collected between and arranged by date of data in Table 1. Of these 7 studies, 3 were case-control studies, 3 were cohort studies, and 1 was a study that used a structural equation modeling analysis of cross-sectional data.

These studies differed in their sample frames, partly based on when homeless veterans articles studies were conducted. For example, one study sampled Vietnameraveterans 28 ,while 3 studies exclusively sampled Iraq and Afghanistan era veterans 3641 It is notable that all of the studies exclusively or predominantly sampled male veterans given the predominance of males in the veteran population, except for one study that exclusively sampled female veterans All of the studies used large population-based samples, except the study focused on female veterans and another study that examined subsequent homelessness among veterans who had obtained supported housing Of the 7 studies, the most consistent risk factors for homelessness identified by all studies were substance abuse and mental health problems.

This was found in all 3 cohort studies 364144which provide support that these problems preceded homelessness. Substance abuse problems appeared to be the risk factor with the greatest magnitude of effect, homeless veterans articles. Three of the 4 studies that included assessment of psychotic disorders i, homeless veterans articles.

Post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD was a risk factor, but it was found to be of the same magnitude as other mental health disorders. One study did find that PTSD specifically increased a veteran's risk for returning to homelessness, but only after supported housing had led to an initial exit from being homeless Presumably all of the homeless veterans in these studies were poor and lacked financial resources for housing.

One of these studies found that VA service connection, which is a VA source of disability compensation income, was protective against homelessness Another of these studies further found that money mismanagement was a larger risk factor than income and mental health problems 7.

Three studies also suggested that lack of social support was a risk factor for homelessness. One study found that post-military social isolation after returning from the Vietnam theater had direct effects on homelessness 28and 2 other studies identified unmarried status as a risk factor 42 Several potentially important risk factors that were identified and measured in only single studies were adverse childhood events e.

A total of 9 less rigorous studies were identified on the basis of data collected from to arranged by date of data in Table 2.

Seven of the studies were cross-sectional studies, and the remaining 2 were small case-control studies, homeless veterans articles. All 3 of the studies that examined substance abuse and mental health problems found that they increased the risk for homelessness 214647supporting findings from the homeless veterans articles rigorously designed studies.

Although no studies examined psychotic disorders specifically, one separate study examined PTSD specifically and found that veterans with PTSD were not at greater risk for homelessness than veterans with other mental health diagnoses 39homeless veterans articles, consistent with findings from the more rigorous studies.

Moreover, veterans with combat exposure appeared to be at lower risk for homelessness than those without combat exposure It is noteworthy that only a small number of studies actually examined mental disorders as a risk factor, because many studies sampled homeless veterans with mental illness exclusively 293947 A few other less rigorous studies provide further evidence for findings of the more rigorous studies. Childhood problems were found to be weakly associated with more extensive periods of homelessness 49providing evidence that premilitary factors increase the risk for homelessness found in a more rigorous study Specific to the veteran population, problematic military discharges were found to be a risk factor for homelessness 29 as found in a more rigorous study Consistent with 3 more rigorous studies suggesting that homeless veterans articles effects of social isolation increased the risk for homelessness 28homeless veterans articles432 less rigorous studies also reported that weaker social support was associated with a longer duration of lifetime homelessness 46 and more chronic homelessness A third less rigorous study reported that veterans themselves attributed weakened social connections to their homeless veterans articles risk for homelessness A strong association was found between incarceration and homelessness in veterans in one less rigorous study Although the directionality of this relation is unclear, it is homeless veterans articles supportive of criminal history's being a risk factor for homelessness as reported in a more rigorous study A total of 15 studies were identified that compared risk factors and characteristics of homeless veterans and homeless nonveterans.

Collectively, homeless veterans articles, these studies were based on data collected from towhich include some of the earliest homeless veterans articles in this review arranged by date of data in Table 3.

Most of the studies were cross-sectional, except for 6 studies that had case-control design components 273952 — 55 and 1 study that used observational longitudinal data All of the case-control studies found a greater risk for homelessness among veterans compared with nonveterans, including other adults in the general population and specifically in low-income populations, although there were substantial differences between age strata representing different eras of military service 27 homeless veterans articles, These studies further found particular subgroups of veterans who were at particularly greater risk than nonveterans.

Male post-Vietnam era veterans, that is, those who served in the early years of the all-volunteer force, appeared to be at particularly greater risk for homelessness than other male adults in the same age cohort, while veterans who served during World War II or the Korean War era were at lower risk for homelessness than nonveterans.

Many of the men who volunteered to serve in the military during this time may have been escaping poor economic conditions and lacked family support. Two other case-control studies, conducted on data collected over a decade apart, both found that female veterans were particularly at greater risk than other women 53 These findings suggest the substantial risk for homelessness among female veterans regardless of service era, perhaps because they have never been subject to a military draft and thus have always been volunteers susceptible to social selection effects The remaining cross-sectional studies were focused mainly on comparing sociodemographic and health characteristics between homeless veterans and homeless nonveterans 1homeless veterans articles, 5557 — Some consistent differences in sociodemographic characteristics were found as homeless veterans were older, better educated, and more likely to be male, to be or to have been married, and to have health coverage often homeless veterans articles the VA.

However, there were some mixed findings about race differences, which may reflect when the data were collected and the era in which the veterans under study served. A high prevalence of physical, mental health, and substance abuse problems was found among both homeless veterans and homeless nonveterans, but there were inconsistent findings when they were compared.

For example, 4 studies found that homeless veterans homeless veterans articles more likely to have substance abuse problems 57 — 5961but 4 other studies found little to no difference in mental health or substance abuse problems 525356


National Coalition for Homeless Veterans


homeless veterans articles


Dec 13,  · Article: Why Are There Homeless Veterans in America? - What manner of nation claims to be the greatest nation on earth and a beacon for freedom Author: Richard Aberdeen. Jul 08,  · Barry connected with the Homeless Veterans Project (HVP) of the Los Angeles-based Inner City Law Center, a medical-legal partnership that provides wrap-around health care, case management and Author: Martha Bergmark, Ellen Lawton. variation, female Veterans were three times as likely as female non-Veterans to become homeless, and male Veterans were twice as likely as male non-Veterans to become homeless. In terms of age, across the general homeless population (Veterans and non-Veterans), males had the highest risk for homelessness in the 45–54 year age group.